Income tax is that percentage of your income that you pay to the government to fund infrastructural development, pay the salaries of those employed by the state or central governments, etc. All taxes are levied based on the passing of a law, and the law that governs the provisions for our income tax is the Income Tax Act, 1961.
Income tax is only of the direct means of taxation like capital gains tax, securities transaction tax, etc., and there are many other indirect taxes that we pay like sales tax, VAT, Octroi, service tax, etc.
The income tax you pay every month or upon every contractual earning is what forms a large part of the revenue for the Government of India. These revenue functions are managed by the Ministry of Finance, which has delegated the responsibility to managing direct taxes (like income tax, wealth tax, etc.) to the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT).
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